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 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE), Samoa

Since the adoption of Agenda 21 following the United Nations Conference on Environment and development in 1992, this report constitutes the first opportunity for Samoa to assess its situation with regard to sustainable development in the past decade

 International Union for Nature Conservation (IUCN)

As environmental problems continue to increase at an ever more rapid rate, exacerbated by the major threat of global climate change, the need for widespread remedial action is becoming ever more pressing. Scientific consensus on both the root causes of these problems and the measures required to tackle them is growing, while mass media and public interest has reached fever pitch.

 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE), Samoa

Samoa Protected Area (PA) data from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), downloaded August 2019. This dataset includes both tables and spatial data.

 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE), Samoa

Samoa Protected Areas (PA) data from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), downloaded August 2019. This dataset includes both tables and spatial data.

 Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme

The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global database of marine and terrestrial protected areas, updated on a monthly basis, and is one of the key global biodiversity data sets being widely used by scientists, businesses, governments, International secretariats and others to inform planning, policy decisions and management.

 Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)

The Government of Papua New Guinea has developed this National Marine Spill
Contingency Plan (NATPLAN) as part of its commitment to protecting its and our
valuable coastal and marine resources from the threat of marine pollution
incidents.
NATPLAN has been developed to reflect the essential steps necessary to initiate,
conduct and terminate an emergency spill response on, or into the navigable
waters of Papua New Guinea, on the adjoining shorelines, the waters of the
contiguous zone or into waters of the exclusive economic zone.

 Ministry of Fisheries & Marine Resources

The sites at Sandfly in Gela, Central Province were established over a three year period (three sites in 2004, two sites in 2005 and one site in 2007) after a series of workshops on good governance and marine resource awareness raising under the coral gardens project which was implemented by SIDT, ECANSI and Fisheries Division of the Solomon Islands government with funding from SPREP through FSPI. The sites are all community owned although two of them are owned and operated by resort owners who are indigenous residents of Gela

Available online

 IUCN/WCPA,  NOAA,  The Nature Conservancy

Healthy marine resources require healthy, intact ecosystems. Marine and coastal ecosystems are highly productive and deliver various goods and services that support communities and economies, including food security, clean water, recreational
opportunities and other benefits. Effective area-based protection, through MPAs, helps maintain ecosystem health and productivity, while safeguarding social and economic

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 Smithsonian Institution

The shorefishes of Ouvea, an isolated atoll in the Loyalty Islands group of New Caledonia, had not been surveyed prior to 1990. An extensive survey was conducted by ORSTOM between 1991 and 1992 to obtain baseline information on the shorefishes. A
total of 653 taxa among 72 families are now documented from this area. The most diverse families are the Labridae (69 species), Pomacentridae (58 species), Gobiidae (54 spccies),Serranidae (39 species), Chaetodontidae (31 species) and Apogonidae (28

 The Nature Conservancy

This socio-economic study was conducted in six villages in Kimbe Bay and was part of a larger project being undertaken by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) to understand the physical and biological aspects of marine ecosystems of Kimbe Bay and the socioeconomic issues influencing local marine resource use and conservation. The Kimbe Bay project aims to protect and conserve the biodiversity and marine resources of the marine environment from the pressures of population increase and economic development within the Bay.

Available online

Call Number: [EL]

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 SPREP Pacific Environment Information Network (PEIN)

In most tropical countries, coral reef ecosystems provide coastal populations with a number of goods and services. However, a variety of anthropogenic practices threatens reef health and therefore jeopardizes the benefits flowing from these goods and services. These threats range from local pollution, sedimentation, destructive fishing practices and coral mining, to global issues such as coral bleaching.

 The Smithsonian Institution

Reef coral collections from American Samoa are in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and in the Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt, W. Germany. The author has a collection of 790 coral specimens for a total of 1547 items known to be from American Samoa.
A total of 177 species (including 3 species of non-scleractinian corals) belonging to 48 genera and subgenera (including the genera Millepora and Heliopora) known to date are listed with data as of frequency of occurrence and habitat.

Available online

 American Samoa Government

The American Samoa Islands and its surrounding waters contain historical, cultural, and natural resources that must be protected, managed, controlled and preserved for the benefit of all people of the Territory and future generations. The protection of these traditionally valuable resources will enhance and increase fish abundance and size for future catch.

 Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)

One of the greatest challanges we face in protecting our islands biodiversity is how to balance the needs of the people that use it, and the future of the environment. There are many reasons why the Pacific islands way of life is endangered, it is
necessary to address these threats, all of them. Understand ing their causes will help to stop them, if it is possible or to change or adapt our way of life. It is necessary to focus on long term sustainability strategies, but in the mean time develop and carry out short term projects to address the immediate needs of our islands.

 Smithsonian Institution

Nukutipipi atoll (5 km2), of volcanic origin 16-17 million years old on the Pitcairn (hot spot) Hereheretue line, presents a land flora and fauna of low diversity but with a Pisonia forest and hundreds of resident red-tailed tropic birds. Nukutipipi suffered from the 1983 hurricanes : destruction of vegetation and motu as well as sand lagoon mollusc populations. The north and south rims present original geomorphological structures.

 Fisheries Department

From Closer external and internal examinations,it is therefore conclude that the fish sampled was not caught from spear,gillnet or line and hook but maybe resulted from other means which can inflicted less external body damages such as 'ava niukini','bleach' or 'dynamite'(if postioned further away from the center of the blast).However,it was scientifically proved that fish at a distance of few hundred metres from the center of the blast can be killed by the impact of the underwater travel sound.

Available online

Call Number: [EL]

 Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council

In April 2003, he National Marine Fisheries Service(NMFS,also known as NOAA Fisheries) transferred the responsibility for man aging the marine resources infederal waters surrounding the US Pacific Islands from NOAA Fisheries' Southwest Region based in california to the newly defined pacific islands region based in Hawaii.The Pacific Islands Region was established with the explicit intent of employing regional expertise to provide improved customer service and stewardship of living marine resources within the expansive geographic region of the western pacific.

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 Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council

This American Samoa Archipelago Fishery Ecosystem Plan (FEP) was developed by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council and represents the first step in an incremental and collaborative approach to implement ecosystem approaches to fishery management in American Samoa.

Available online

Call Number: [EL]

Physical Description: 245 p.

 National Museum of Natural History

The very productive lagoon fisheries of Tarawa atoll changed greatly in recent decades as human development and intensive harvesting increased. Tarawa typifies the increasingly common condition of resource depletion and marine community structure change with expanding human activities and population growth. Fisheries-dependent reports have documented the change in fisher landings for nearly two decades. A comparison of fisheries-independent data collected during 1992-93 with data collected in 1977 allowed for documentation of large changes in important finfish resources in Tarawa Lagoon.

 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Coastal areas and oceans are complex and fragile environments with many different functions linked to public health, food security, and other economic and social benefits. These are also decisive elements in the alleviation of poverty. Healthy estuarine, near-shore and oceanic systems provide cultural heritage, food, building materials, traditional livelihoods, tourism opportunities, transportation routes, storm protection, organisms for biotechnology and many more benefits that are frequently overlooked or abused.

Available electronically