Reefs at Risk Revisited is a high-resolution update of the original global analysis, Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World’s Coral Reefs. Reefs at Risk Revisited uses a global map of coral reefs at 500-m resolution, which is 64 times more detailed than the 4-km resolution map used in the 1998 analysis, and benefits from improvements in many global data sets used to evaluate threats to reefs (most threat data are at 1 km resolution, which is 16 times more detailed than those used in the 1998 analysis).
A recently published paper, titled “Coastal proximity of populations in 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories” details the methodology used to undertake the analysis and presents the findings. **Purpose** * This analysis aims to estimate populations settled in coastal areas in 22 Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTS) using the data currently available. In addition to the coastal population estimates, the study compares the results obtained from the use of national population datasets (census) with those derived from the use of global population grids.
The TC Outlook is based on statistical analyses of historical tropical cyclones data that occurred dating back to the 1970’s in similar ENSO-Neutral conditions, the same methodology developed by regional centers, with national Tropical Cyclone Outlooks utilizing national datasets.
For Samoa, (7) analogue (mapped) seasons are identical to the current ENSO conditions. Analogue Seasons (1986/87; 1990/91; 2003/04; 2004/05; 2006/07; 2009/10; 2014/15)
*Data Extracted from pdf*
For survey purposes piped water quality was assessed based on enumerator’s observations of water quality (namely visual appearance, taste and smell) at the time of the interview. No scientific measurements of water quality were undertaken as part of this survey.
*data extracted from National Water and Sanitation Baseline Survey 2015 pdf*
Average water consumption for SWA customers is in the range of 140 to 180 litres per person per day (L/c.d) which is comparable to international norm of between 150 and 200L/c.d. The SWA aims to further reduce per capita water through demand management practices to encourage wise water usage to preserve and conserve water resources.
*Data extracted from the Water and Sanitation Sector Plan 2016 - 2020*
Data extracted from the Water and Sanitation Sector Plan 2016 - 2020, page 53
In addition, production losses and higher production costs arising from the disaster across all sectors (referred to as losses) are estimated at SAT 229.4 million, or US$100.6 million. Thus the total effects of the disaster amount to SAT 465 million, or US$203.9 million.
Damages to the sector were mostly to water supply infrastructure and on-site sanitation systems, including septic tanks,
pour flush pit latrines, and dry pit latrines. Total damages are estimated at SAT 8.8 million, while losses were estimated
as SAT 3.8 million more.
*data extracted from the PDNA Evan 2012 report, pg 69*
The overall damages sustained to cultural heritage were assessed as moderate, although there are several landmarks of Samoa that suffered severe damages. The historic buildings of most concern are the Robert Louis Stevenson Museum (RLSM) and the Old Courthouse. Damages at RLSM are mostly to the botanical garden surrounding the museum. In the Old Courthouse, water leakage from the damaged ceiling continues to affect the floor in the building. The assessment also highlights the damage and loss relating to the integrity and authenticity of the Fagaloa–Uofato protected area.
The environmental assets most affected by Cyclone Evan were the lowland forest areas on the southern coast of Upolu. Damage to these assets are expected to result in substantial production losses to the water, forestry, and tourism sectors in particular, as well as cause harm to biodiversity in these areas.
*data extracted from PDNA Evan 2012, pg 91*
The agriculture and fisheries sectors sustained significant damage and loss. The worst hit agricultural areas are the southwest, central, and southern parts and the central highlands of Upolu island.
*data extracted from PDNA Evan 2012 report, pg 18 *
This list of indicators was developed through the Inform project at SPREP for use by Pacific Islands countries (PICs) to meet their national and international reporting obligations. The indicators are typically adopted by PICs for their State of Environment reports and are intended to be re-used for a range of MEA and SDG reporting targets. The indicators have been designed to be measurable and repeatable so that countries can track key aspect of environmental health over time.
This paper highlights the seriousness of the “biodiversity crisis” on atolls and the need to place greater research and conservation emphasis on atolls and other small island ecosystems. It is based on studies over the past twenty years conducted in the atolls of Tuvalu, Tokelau, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and the Tuamotu Archipelago of French Polynesia. It stresses that atolls offer some of the greatest opportunities for integrated studies of simplified small-island ecosystems.